Barcelona and Argentina forward Lionel Messi, a five-time Ballon d’Or winner, missed out on a place in the top three.
There was also no place for any member of France’s World Cup winning squad.
Lyon’s Champions League winning duo Ada Hegerberg of Norway and Germay’s Dzsenifer Marozsan are the finalists for Best Fifa Women’s Player, alongside Brazil forward Marta.
Portugal winger Ronaldo, the 2016 and 2017 winner, won a fifth Champions League title with Real Madrid in May before joining Juventus for £99.2m.
Real midfielder Luka Modric was named the World Cup 2018’s player of the tournament as Croatia reached the final against France.
Egypt forward Salah scored 44 goals as Liverpool reached the Champions League final, losing to Real.
Modric beat Ronaldo and Salah to win the Uefa Men’s Player of the Year last week.
England striker Harry Kane, who won the World Cup Golden Boot and was on the original 10-man shortlist, has also missed out.
Didier Deschamps, who led France to the World Cup, is nominated for coach of the year, alongside Croatia’s Zlatko Dalic and former Real Madrid boss Zinedine Zidane.
The awards are separate to the Ballon d’Or, after world football’s governing body ended its association with that honour in 2016.
A panel of Fifa legends and experts drew up 10-man shortlists for each award and a jury consisting of national team captains, coaches, selected journalists and fans choose the winner, each group accounting for 25% of the vote.
Ronaldo’s overhead kick against Juventus and Gareth Bale’s overhead kick against Liverpool in the Champions League final are among the 10 nominees for the Puskas award for best goal, which is voted for by the fans.
The winners will be announced on 24 September at Royal Festival Hall in London.
Cristiano Ronaldo – Juventus & Portugal
Luka Modric – Real Madrid & Croatia
Mohamed Salah – Liverpool & Egypt
Ada Hegerberg – Lyon & Norway
Dzsenifer Marozsan – Lyon & Germany
Marta – Orlando Pride & Brazil
Zlatko Dalic – Croatia
Didier Deschamps – France
Zinedine Zidane – former Real Madrid
Reynald Pedros – Lyon
Asako Takakura – Japan
Sarina Wiegman – Netherlands
Thibaut Courtois – Real Madrid & Belgium
Hugo Lloris – Tottenham & France
Kasper Schmeichel – Leicester & Denmark
Gareth Bale (Real Madrid) v Liverpool
Denis Cheryshev (Russia) v Croatia
Lazaros Christodoulopoulos (AEK) v Olympiacos
Giorgian De Arrascaeta (Cruzeiro) -v America MG
Riley McGree (Newcastle Jets) v Melbourne City
Lionel Messi (Argentina) v Nigeria
Benjamin Pavard (France) v Argentina
Ricardo Quaresma (Portugal) v Iran
Cristiano Ronaldo (Real Madrid ) v Juventus
Mohamed Salah (Liverpool) v Everton
Sebastian Carrera (Deportes Puerto Montt, Chile)
Japan and Senegal fans